Validating a measure of temperament
For example, methods based on covariance matrices are typically employed on the premise that numbers, such as raw scores derived from assessments, are measurements.
Such approaches implicitly entail Stevens's definition of measurement, which requires only that numbers are assigned according to some rule.
Generally, it refers to the field in psychology and education that is devoted to testing, measurement, assessment, and related activities.
The field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement.
Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are important domains of scientific psychology.
Much of the early theoretical and applied work in psychometrics was undertaken in an attempt to measure intelligence.
In the late 1950s, Leopold Szondi made an historical and epistemological assessment of the impact of statistical thinking onto psychology during previous few decades: "in the last decades, the specifically psychological thinking has been almost completely suppressed and removed, and replaced by a statistical thinking.
Precisely here we see the cancer of testology and testomania of today." More recently, psychometric theory has been applied in the measurement of personality, attitudes, and beliefs, and academic achievement.
(Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010) Herbart was responsible for creating mathematical models of the mind, which were influential in educational practices in years to come. It is Wundt's influence that paved the way for others to develop psychological testing. In addition, Spearman and Thurstone both made important contributions to the theory and application of factor analysis, a statistical method developed and used extensively in psychometrics.
Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures.
James Mc Keen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work.
In addition to traditional academic institutions, many psychometricians work for the government or in human resources departments.
Others specialize as learning and development professionals.