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* Six Problems with the Contamination Explanation: (See the 6th point below for why collagen itself cannot be contaminated with modern carbon and for the Nature 2017 paper explaining that microbes like cyanobacteria in fossils get their carbon not from the atmosphere but from their bone substrate, meaning that they cannot supply a younger date than a dinosaur fossil, because they date the same as that fossil!) Both mathematical analysis of the data, and the nature of some of the specimens, indicate that contamination does not solve the radiocarbon problem for old-earth geologists.: While dinosaur bones, coal, and other specimens could easily be contaminated, diamonds, the hardest naturally occurring substance in the world are naturally resistant to contamination.Rather, the collagen must be manufactured within a living animal (with its constituent carbon atoms) into a "super-super-coil...interdigitated with its neighboring microfibrils... so well ordered as to be crystalline." Further, bacteria do not make collagen, which eliminates another possible source of contamination.Regarding the results from the ten dinosaurs dated (as above), of course, bacteria do not make collagen.And if the 14c came from contamination, for example, one would not expect the contamination to so equally affect the bioapatite and the collagen.: Dinosaur bone showing 5pmc means that, because the 14c half-life is so brief, 5,730 years, if the radiocarbon is from contamination that occurred 6,000 years ago, a full five percent, i.e., 1/20th of the bone must have been replaced.As a result of decomposition, to the extent that original carbon atoms were falling out of the tissue (so to speak), then to that extent you would no longer have collagen; rather, to that extent you would have humic acid.Decomposing collagen cannot be "repaired" by free carbon atoms happening upon the decomposition.
And consider this from a peer-reviewed paper in a respected scientific journal, "at a constant 10°C (the approximate mean annual air temperature in Britain today) it will take between 0.2 and 0.7 Ma for levels of collagen to fall to 1% of their original concentration in an optimal burial environment." * Getting Graded: An expert on radiocarbon dating, long-time assistant professor at Loma Linda University, Dr. The teacher corrected a couple points and clarified a few others.
Because radiocarbon exists in significant quantities, far above the least count (margin of error) with our state-of-the-art AMS labs doing the tests, these results can !
The Radiocarbon field itself now widely acknowledges, and tries almost desperately to discount, that specimens supposedly millions and billions of years old will yield maximum carbon-14 ages of only thousands of years!
As reported elsewhere also in limestone, fossilized wood, coal, marble, deep groundwater, geological graphite, Mesozoic-layer limestone, and the bones of dinosaurs including the ten described below.
And as reported at Science Direct, short-lived 14c is regularly found even in supposedly billion-year-old diamonds!